71) The need to outsource employees is a complex issue for international human resource (IHR) managers as they seek to support strategic mandates. 72) International human resource management is a vital component of implementing global strategy. 73) Building global corporate cultures and staffing organizations with global leaders are some of the major challenges faced by the HR function in the global arena. 74) Host-country nationals are employees assigned to key positions in countries other than their own. 75) When a company is at the internationalization stage of strategic expansion, and has a centralized structure, it will likely use a polycentric staffing approach to fill key managerial positions. 76) Companies using an ethnocentric staffing approach, avoid using parent-country nationals to fill in key managerial positions. 77) An ethnocentric recruiting approach enables a company to take advantage of its worldwide pool of management skill. 78) With a polycentric staffing approach, host-country nationals are hired to fill key positions in their own country. 79) Host-country nationals are more likely to be accepted by people both inside and outside the subsidiary, and they provide role models for other upwardly mobile personnel. 80) Local managers are, by and large, ineffective in dealing with problems in sensitive political situations. 81) One disadvantage of a polycentric staffing policy is the difficulty of coordinating activities and goals between the subsidiary and the parent company, including the potentially conflicting loyalties of the local manager. 82) In the global staffing approach, the best managers are recruited from within or outside of the company, regardless of nationality. 83) In a polycentric staffing approach, recruiting is done on a regional basis and can produce a specific mix of PCNs, HCNs, and TCNs, according to the needs of the company or the product strategy. 84) Inpatriates are managers with global experience who are transferred to the organization's headquarters country, so their overseas business and cultural experience and contacts can facilitate interactions among the country's far-flung operations. 85) Local managers can provide communication of strategic goals and change processes, and provide continuity among revolving expatriates and host nationals. 86) Inpatriate managers can facilitate multicultural management teams in global organizations. 87) Alienation or lack of support from headquarters is one of the major causes of expatriate failure. 88) Enculturation refers to a state of disorientation and anxiety about not knowing how to behave in an unfamiliar culture. 89) To ensure that expatriates do not lose out through their overseas assignment, the going-rate approach is often used to equalize the standard of living between the host country and the home country. 90) Many multinationals, in particular"chains," wish to train their local managers and workers to bridge the divide between the firm's successful corporate culture and practices, and the local culture and work practices.
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