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Answer the following questions. Attach additional sheet(s) to show your calculations. Each scenario involves an autosomal gene locus with only two alleles. For some problems, it may help to recall that allele frequencies can be calculated by p + q = 1 and that genotype frequencies can be calculated by p^{2} + 2pq + q^{2} = 1. For both equations, p = freq. of one of the alleles, and q = freq. of the other allele.

BIOL 106

Dr. Javonillo

26 Feb. 2016

Answer the following questions. Attach additional sheet(s) to show your calculations. Each scenario involves an

autosomal gene locus with only two alleles. For some problems, it may help to recall that allele frequencies can be

calculated by p + q = 1 and that genotype frequencies can be calculated by p 2 + 2pq + q2 = 1. For both equations, p = freq.

of one of the alleles, and q = freq. of the other allele.

1) In a population of insects, the allele for green eyes (G) is completely dominant over the allele for yellow eyes (g).

1a) If two yellow-eyed insects mate, what is the probability that their offspring will have green eyes? In other

words, what is the expected proportion of offspring with green eyes?

1b) If two yellow-eyed insects mate, what is the probability that their offspring will have yellow eyes? In other

words, what is the expected proportion of offspring with yellow eyes?

1c) In an yellow-eyed insect mates with a heterozygote, what is the probability that their offspring will have

yellow eyes?

1d) If an insect that is homozygous dominant mates with a heterozygote and they produce 200 offspring, how

many would you expect to exhibit the dominant phenotype?

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2) You have sampled a population of North American robins (Turdus migratorius) and know that, for a particular gene

locus, there are only two alleles, one allele is completely dominant to the other, and that the frequency of the homozygous

recessive genotype (?aa?) is 36%. Assume the population is in genetic (Hardy-Weinberg) equilibrium and calculate the

following:

2a) The frequency (proportion) of the "a" allele

2b) The frequency of the "A" allele

2c) The frequencies of the two possible phenotypes

2d) The frequency of the Aa genotype

2e) The frequency of the AA genotype

3) Within a population of flies, the allele for brown (B) wings is completely dominant to the allele for white wings (b).

According to your research, 25% of the flies have white wings and population is in HWE. Calculate the following:

3a) The proportion of flies in the population that have brown wings

3b) The quantity of flies with brown wings, if the total population size is 1,000,000

3c) The proportion of homozygous dominant individuals

3d) The proportion of flies in the population that are heterozygous

4) In plants called snapdragons, flower color is controlled by a single locus with two alleles (C R, CW) and incomplete

dominance, such that the genotype CRCR produces red flowers, the genotype CWCW produces white flowers, and the

heterozygous genotype CRCW produces a third intermediate phenotype of pink flowers. In a particular population of

snapdragons, there are 1,000,000 plants and 160,000 of the plants have white flowers. Assume the population is in HWE.

4a) What is the frequency of the CR allele?

4b) What is the frequency of the CWallele

4c) What is the frequency of the CRCW genotype?

4d) How many plants would you expect to have pink flowers?

4e) How many plants would you expect to have red flowers?

4f) How many plants will have pink flowers in the next generation, if the population remains in HWE?

5) In a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), p=0.25 and q=0.75 for some gene that has two alleles. In

the next generation of that population, p=0.25 and q=0.75 again. What can you conclude about the population?

6) In a population of a species of sea star (?starfish?), p=0.47 and q=0.53 for some gene that has two alleles. In the next

generation of that population, p=0.40 and q=0.60. What can you conclude about the population? Just based on the

information given, can you determine which condition(s) necessary for HWE is/are being violated?

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