m needing help with Experiment 2:Creating a phylum key. Please help!;Attachment Preview;Bio Lab 13 Invert and Vert.pdf Download Attachment;Animals;Lab 10;Invertebrates & Vertebrates;113;114;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;Concepts to explore;x;x;x;x;x;Characteriscs of animals;Heterotrophs;Symmetry;Invertebrates;Vertebrates;Introducon;The kingdom Animalia comprises millions of species, ranging from the snail to the hippopotamus, the;ant to the elephant, the cenpede to the human. Though there are notable dierences in body shape;and funcon, almost are mole, mulcellular eukaryotes, with disnct ssue structures that perform;specialized funcons (i.e., heart, stomach) and almost all parcipate in sexual reproducon. Unlike;plants, animals cannot produce energy from sunlight and, as heterotrophs, acquire energy by consum;ing organic material (other plants and animals).;Useful characterisc for classify animals is symmetry, or the balanced division of their form. Radial;Symmetry, as is seen in starsh, is a division originang in the center and protruding outwards that;produces even and balanced secons. This is similar to the divisions that are made when a pie is cut;into many even pieces. In Bilateral Symmetry, as is seen in a beetle, the object can be divided into two;mirror images by a center line that runs through the enre object. Asymmetry occurs when there can;be no even division, as is seen in a sponge.;Animals are classied into two categories based on structure.;x;Invertebrates are organisms that lack an endoskeleton, such as the jellysh, insects, or worms.;They make up over 98% of all animal species.;x;Vertebrates possess an endoskeleton (an internal skeletal structure) and spinal column, like;you or your dog. An endoskeleton is a signicant adapve advantage that enables vertebrates;to occupy dierent ecological niches (roles).;There are over 35 phyla in the Animal Kingdom. The vast majority fall within the following eight, seven;of which are invertebrates.;x;Phylum Porifera consists of sponges, considered to be the oldest of the animal phyla (Figure 1).;As staonary lters, sponges play an important role in aquac systems, feeding on parcles;115;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;and bacteria in the water. Water enters the sponge through;several large canals and millions of small pores. Their asymmet;ric body is a loose assembly of cells (no ssues) that support a;skeleton of collagen bers and spicules. Sponges reproduce;both sexually and asexually.;Figure 1: Porifera;x;The phylum Cnidaria includes jellysh;corals, sea anemones, and hydras (Figure 2).;They were the rst to develop nerves and muscles and typically alternate;between two body forms: the freeswimming medusa and the staonary;polyp. Both body types consist of three layers of ssue surrounded by ten;tacles with snging cells containing ny, toxic harpoons that can be used in;either defense or oense. They have radial symmetry (if you cut it in half;each half will look like the other), with a hollow body cavity to digest food.;Figure 2:Cnidaria;x;The phylum Platyhelminthes includes freshwater planaria, colorful marine polycads, para;sic tapeworms and ukes. They are some of the simplest bilaterally symmetrical organ;isms with a dened head and tail, and a centralized nervous system containing a brain and;nerves. They lack both a body cavity and circulatory system, but do have a tubular mouth;an excretory system and a highly branched digesve system. Clusters of lightsensive cells;make up their eyespots. They are hermaphrodic, capable of both sexual and asexual re;producon.;x The phylum Annelida is represented by marine worms (polychaetes), earthworms and leech;Figure 3: Annelida;x;es (Figure 3). They are bilaterally symmetric with a segmented body cavity;oen represented by a tube within a tube design. Each segment has ny;hairs called setae which help the organism to move. Segmentaon was;an important development that provides disnct regions to specialize in;dierent tasks. A oneway digesve tract, closedcirculatory system, and;central nervous system also dierenate this invertebrate. Annelids play;a signicant ecological role by reworking soil and sediments.;The phylum Arthropoda, the most diverse and numerous of;the Animal Kingdom, includes insects, crustacean, spiders, mil;lipedes, and cenpedes (Figure 4). All arthropods have seg;mented bodies and are covered in a hard, exible exoskeleton.;Their muscles from their jointed appendages aach to the in;side of this protecve cover. Many species, such as dragonies;that start as larvae and develop into winged adults, exhibit;Figure 4: Arthropoda;116;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;Some sandy beaches may harbor;32,000 burrowing annelids per;square meter, which collecvely;may ingest and excrete 3 metric;tons of sand per year!;mulple life cycles. Their open body cavity which contains s;sues, organs and a complete digesve tract.;xThe phylum Mollusca includes clams, snails, slugs and the octo;pus (Figure 5). Though;there is a great deal of di;versity within this phylum;all mollusks have so bodies, many of which are cov;ered by a hard calcied shell. The shell is secreted by;a layer of ssue called the mantle. A muscular foot;provides locomoon and grasping. A coarse, lelike;organ (the radula) allows most mollusks to drill into;Figure 5: Mollusca;their prey or snag sh. Many hunt by propelling water;through a siphon either for locomoon or to capture food. A mantle cavity houses gills and;oneway digesve system.;x;The phylum Echinodermata includes sea stars, sea lilies;sea urchins, sea cucumbers, and over 6,000 other salt wa;ter species (Figure 6). Instead of bilateral or radial sym;metry, echinoderms exhibit ve part symmetry in their;bodies. Their hard, exible bodies are composed of small;calcium plates that are oen spiny and covered by a thin;skin. Inside is a complete digesve system and a special;Figure 6: Echinodermata;uidlled system that operates tube feet (which some;mes grow back if lost) which allow them to move, feed, and respire.;x;Vertebrates (Figure 7), along with tunicates and lancelets, fall into a;subphylum of the phylum Chordata.;x;Tunicates are invertebrates that look like sponges but have;a bony, vertebral column with a dorsal nerve cord which;develops into a spinal cord and brain, a common feature;they share with vertebrates.;x;Their internal skeleton allows them to grow without the;need to molt (as in arthropods).;Figure 7: Vertebrates;x;Chordates have gill cles (the structures located behind;the mouth and in front of the esophagus), bilateral symmetry, segmented muscles;and a protecve layer (feathers, scales, hair, fur, etc.,).;x Two main groups of the subphylum vertebrata include shes and tetrapods (amphibians;reples, birds, and mammals).;117;Lab 10: Invertebrates & Vertebrates;x;Fish are found in the water, lay so eggs, are cold blooded and use gills to breathe.;x;Amphibians are found in both water and on land, lay so eggs, are cold blooded;and breathe using, gills, lungs an through their skin.;x;Reples live almost enrely on land, lay somewhat hard shelled eggs, are cold;blooded and breathe through lungs.;x;Birds are found on land (and in the air), lay hard shelled eggs, are warm blooded;and breathe through lungs.;x;Mammals are normally found on land, give live birth, are warm blooded and;breathe through lungs. Mammals are also characterized by the presence of hair on;their bodies and their ability to produce milk in sweat glands (mammary glands) for;their young. There are roughly 5,000 species of mammals.;Arguably the most dominant vertebrate is Homo sapien;(you). Humans are thought to be the longest living;mammals, though other species, such as the elephant;and whale are also longlived. Though there are obvious;dierences between human beings and other mammals;there are also many similaries. In the following labs we;will look at human systems as a model for what is found;in many vertebrates.;Many heart valve replacements are actually;porcine valves. The cells are removed but;the architecture of the ssue remains. The;cardiac physiology between man and pig is;so similar that the parts can be made;interchangeable!;Experiment 1: Symmetry in
Invertebrates & Vertebrates
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