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(Answered) Describe the main points presented in the article.


"he media (newspapers, magazine articles, television news programs, and Web-based information) provide us with much of what we know about human biology. People often overlook these learning opportunities, but after taking a course on human biology, one is primed to take advantage of these chances for additional learning. Magazine articles on a special topic are particularly informative because they often go into greater depth and are a good way to continue learning or reviewing biology as a lifelong practice. Current articles are a good source of information about advances in a particular area of human biology, and they also highlight possible future advances in the treatment of certain conditions.;Still, with so much information available in the media, it is important to understand how to evaluate the credibility of these sources of information. We have all seen statistics presented in the media that we questioned, and information that appeared to be biased, misleading, or even inaccurate. How can we be sure we are taking in information that is objective, thorough, and accurate? Although we may not be experts, we can do our best to be informed and critical evaluators of information.;Review the article ""Athletics and Herbal Supplements"" from this unit's readings and write and submit a summary. Include the following;Describe the main points presented in the article. What message is the author trying to convey? Discuss specific areas of research and the findings.;Explain the role of supplements and athletics. Why are supplements currently unregulated? Do you think supplements should undergo more stringent testing? If so, how would this be monitored and paid for?;Cross-check the information. What do other sources of information say about the same concepts presented in the article? Are there discrepancies between the information in the article and from other sources?;Include an evaluation of your source by answering the questions in the Source Evaluation Form? Journals given in the resources. Explain in a paragraph or two why you would or would not consider this article to be a credible source of information on this topic.;Your paper should be between 500 and 700;Additional Requirements;Other Requirements: Athletics and Herbal Supplements.;Authors;Senchina, David S.1 dssenchina@drake.edu;Source;American Scientist. Mar/Apr2013, Vol. 101 Issue 2, p134-141. 8p.;Document Type;Article;Subject Terms;*DIETARY supplements;*HERBS -- Therapeutic use;*SPORTS medicine;*ATHLETES -- Health;*ATHLETES -- Nutrition;*GINSENG -- Therapeutic use;*ECHINACEA (Plants);*EPHEDRA;*ROSEROOT;*TRIBULUS terrestris;THERAPEUTIC use;NAICS/Industry Codes;414510 Pharmaceuticals and pharmacy supplies merchant wholesalers;446191 Food (Health) Supplement Stores;711219 Other Spectator Sports;Abstract;The article discusses the use of herbal supplements in athletics, focusing on the effects of supplements on athletes' health and performance. The author discusses a multidisciplinary approach to herbal supplement research involving medical disciplines, botany, and chemistry, and special attention is paid to athletes' motivations for using herbal supplements. Several of the most popular herbs used in supplements are noted, including ephedra (Ephedra sinica), arctic root (Rhodiola rosea), and caltrop (Tribulus terrestris), and special attention is paid to the use of echinacea and ginseng.;Author Affiliations;1Associate professor of medical microbiology and kinesiology, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa;Full Text Word Count;4795;ISSN;0003-0996;Accession Number;85628240;Translate Full Text;HTML Full Text;Athletics and Herbal Supplements;Contents;A Multidisciplinary Framework;Why Athletes Use Herbs;Popular Herbs;Echinacea;Ginseng;Full Speed Ahead;Bibliography;Listen;Select;Do current products enhance athletes' health and performance?;Athletes' use of herbal supplements has skyrocketed in the past two decades. At the top of the list of popular herbs are echinacea and ginseng, whereas garlic, St. John's wort, soybean, ephedra and others are also surging in popularity or have been historically prevalent. According to a publication by the American Botanical Council, herbal supplement sales grossed $5.3 billion in the United States during 2011, a 4.5 percent increase from the preceding year. Despite their increasing popularity, recent events have illuminated possible concerns regarding efficacy and safety of herbal supplements. Remarkable sports performances at the end of the 20th century raised suspicions about supplement use by athletes, prompting the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency, or WADA. Shortly thereafter, the deaths of two professional athletes raised concerns that an herbal supplement, ephedra, may have contributed to their deaths. These events and others have prompted clinicians and scientists to reevaluate the role of herbal supplements in athletics. The meaning of the term herbal supplement is itself nebulous. Some use it to refer to products derived directly from plants, whereas others use it to mean any product containing molecules of botanical origin, such as caffeine pills. Herbal supplements are variously called botanicals, phytomedicines, dietary supplements, nutritional supplements or nutraceuticals. In this article, the term herbal supplement refers to plant-derived products containing multiple bioactive chemicals, with some exceptions for products of fungal or bacterial origin (which are technically not ""herbal"" but are often treated the same).;Although industry has kept pace with athletes' interests and simultaneously spurred them, research has lagged behind and many questions linger. Why do athletes consume these herbs? Do they use the product as directed on the label or by a doctor? What claims are made about these supplements, and does clinical research support them? How can scientists and sports medicine personnel best design experiments to answer these questions, and what obstacles do they encounter?;A Multidisciplinary Framework;Herbal supplement sales, the number of available herbs and the number of preparation types have all grown in recent years, and many of these are popular among American athletes (see Figure 2). Despite this burgeoning industry, research on supplements' effects on human biology remains inconclusive overall, and athletes are often left to trust manufacturers' claims or teammates' advice when it comes to making choices about what supplements to take and whether to take them.;Early studies of any herbal supplement are almost exclusively of the clinical variety. They strive to address questions of efficacy by testing supplements available for over-the-counter purchase. Studies often include detailed information on subjects' characteristics, dosing regimens, methods for assessing efficacy and, in athletic studies, aerobic endurance exercise or anaerobic strength training regimens. But such studies frequently lack information about the chemical contents, botanical origin or agricultural provenance of the supplements. In addition, medical pilot studies are often characterized by small sample sizes, and a paltry number of studies typically exist for a given herb. This complex interplay of factors makes results hard to replicate or interpret and makes it difficult to identify confounding variables among studies.;Even when every study for an herb is stalwartly reviewed, one is typically forced to conclude that the data are equivocal--for every study that supports efficacy, another refutes it, even after controlling for demographics, dosing and so forth. The predictable outcome is confusion and miscommunication within the sports science community.;Dovetailing botany, chemistry and medical disciplines from cell biology to physiology is absolutely critical to the advancement of research on herbal supplements in athletic contexts. In addition to many others' work on this subject, collaborators from Drake and Iowa State Universities Nisarg Shah, Danielle Doty, Cole Sanderson, Justus Hallam and I have developed novel experimental data on previously neglected preclinical factors. The species of plant chosen, the location from which the plant was ga"
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