Can you answer the two attachments quizzes?;Attachments Preview;Chapter 9.doc Download Attachment;CHAPTER 9;HOW GENES AND GENOMES EVOLVE;2009 Garland Science Publishing;Generating Genetic Variation;9-1;Which of the following statements is false?;(a);A mutation that arises in a mothers somatic cell often causes a disease in;her daughter.;(b);All mutations in an asexually reproducing single-celled organism are;passed on to progeny.;(c);In an evolutionary sense, somatic cells exist only to help propagate germline cells.;(d);A mutation is passed on to offspring only if it is present in the germ line.;9-2;Your friend works in a lab that is studying why a particular mutant strain of;Drosophila grows an eye on its wing. Your friend discovers that this mutant strain;of Drosophila is expressing a transcription factor incorrectly. In the mutant;Drosophila, this transcription factor, which is normally expressed in the;primordial eye tissue, is now misexpressed in the wing primordial wing tissue;thus turning on transcription of the set of genes required to produce an eye in the;wing primordial tissue. If this hypothesis is true, which of the following types of;genetic change would most likely lead to this situation?;(a);a mutation within the transcription factor gene that leads to a premature;stop codon after the third amino acid;(b);a mutation within the transcription factor gene that leads to a substitution;of a positively charged amino acid for a negatively charged amino acid;(c);a mutation within an upstream enhancer of the gene;(d);a mutation in the TATA box of the gene;9-3;Match the type of phenotypic change below with the type of genetic change most;likely to cause it. Each type of genetic change may be used more than once, or;may not be used at all.;Phenotypic changes;1.;A protein normally localized in the nucleus is now localized in the;cytoplasm.;2.;A protein acquires a DNA binding domain.;3.;Tandem copies of a gene are found in the genome.;4.;A copy of a bacterial gene is now found integrated on a human;chromosome.;5.;A protein becomes much more unstable.;6.;A protein normally expressed only in the liver is now expressed in blood;cells.;Types of genetic change;A.;mutation within a gene;B.;gene duplication;C.;mutation in a regulatory region;D.;exon shuffling;E.;horizontal gene transfer;9-4;For each of the following sentences, fill in the blanks with the best word or phrase;in the list below. Not all words or phrases will be used, use each word or phrase;only once.;Sexual reproduction in a multicellular organism involves;specialized reproductive cells, called __________________s;which come together to form a __________________ that will;divide to produce both reproductive and;cells. A point mutation in the DNA is considered a;mutation if it changes a nucleotide that;leads to no phenotypic consequence, a point mutation is considered;if it changes a nucleotide within a gene and;causes the protein to be non-functional.;common;gamete;homologous;deleterious;unequal;somatic;neutral;intron;cellulose;zygote;9-5;Transposable elements litter the genomes of primates, and a few of them are still;capable of moving to new regions of the genome. If a transposable element;jumped into an important gene in one of your cells when you were a baby and;caused a disease, is it likely that your child would also have the disease? Explain.;9-6;What is the most likely explanation of why the overall mutation rates in bacteria;and in humans are roughly similar?;(a);Cell division needs to be fast.;(b);Most mutations are silent.;(c);There is a narrow range of mutation rates that offers an optimal balance;between keeping the genome stable and generating sufficient diversity in a;population.;(d);It benefits a multicellular organism to have some variability among its;cells.;9-7;For each statement below, indicate whether it is true or false and explain why.;A.;B.;C.;D.;E.;9-8;To meet a challenge or develop a new function, evolution essentially;builds from first principles, designing from scratch, to find the best;possible solution.;Nearly every instance of DNA duplication leads to a new functional gene.;A pseudogene is very similar to a functional gene but cannot be expressed;because of mutations.;Most genes in vertebrates are unique, and only a few genes are members;of multigene families.;Horizontal transfer is very rare and thus has had little influence on the;genomes of bacteria.;Two individuals are represented in each choice in Figure Q9-8, individual 1 is one;of the parents of individual 2. The asterisk seen in each choice indicates the;occurrence of a single mutation during the cell division. Which of the choices in;Figure Q9-8 will lead to a mutation in every cell of the individual in which the;original mutation occurred?;Figure Q9-8;9-9;Two individuals are represented in Figure Q9-9, individual 1 is one of the parents;of individual 2. The asterisk indicates the occurrence of a single mutation.;Figure Q9-9;What is the chance that individual 2 will inherit the mutation in individual 1?;(a);100%;(b);50%;(c);1 in 100,000;(d);none;9-10;Consider a gene with a particular function. Mutation X and mutation Y each cause;defects in the function of the encoded protein, yet a gene containing both;mutations X and Y encodes a protein that works even better than the original;protein. The odds are exceedingly small that a single mutational event will;generate both mutations X and Y. Explain a simple way that an organism with a;mutant gene containing both mutations X and Y could arise during evolution.;9-11;For each of the following sentences, fill in the blanks with the best word or phrase;in the list below. Not all words or phrases will be used, use each word or phrase;only once.;Most variation between individual humans is in the form of;may arise by;recombination within introns and can create proteins with novel;combinations of domains. Scientists and government regulators;must be very careful when introducing herbicide-resistant;transgenic corn plants into the environment, because if resistant;weeds arise from __________________ then the herbicides could;become useless. Families of related genes can arise from a single;ancestral copy by __________________ and subsequent;divergence;exon shuffling;gene duplication;horizontal gene transfer;9-12;purifying selection;single-nucleotide polymorphisms;synteny;unequal crossing-over;Figure Q9-12 shows an experiment used to determine the spontaneous mutation;rate in E. coli. If the spontaneous mutation rate in E. coli is 1 mistake in every 109;nucleotides copied, about how many colonies would you expect to see on the;plates lacking histidine if you were to assay 1011 cells from the culture for their;ability to form colonies?;Figure Q9-12;(a);(b);(c);(d);9-13;1;2;10;100;The spontaneous mutation rate in E. coli was determined by performing assays to;test for the frequency of an AT to GC change. These assays were performed using;E. coli that started out unable to produce histidine (His) because of an inserted;UGA stop codon that disrupted the region coding for an enzyme required to;produce histidine. When a spontaneous mutation arose that enabled the UGA stop;codon to code for tryptophan, the E. coli cells were then able to produce the;enzyme required for histidine production. Would you expect a change in the;spontaneous mutation rate of 1 mistake every 109 nucleotides copied if reversion;of the stop codon to cysteine (instead of tryptophan) could cause the bacteria to;produce histidine? Explain. (The codon table is shown in Figure Q9-13 to help;you answer this question.);Figure Q9-13;9-14;Which of the following changes is least likely to arise from a point mutation in a;regulatory region of a gene?;(a);a mutation that changes the time in an organisms life during which a;protein is expressed;(b);a mutation that eliminates the production of a protein in a specific cell;type;(c);a mutation that changes the subcellular localization of a protein;(d);a mutation that increases the level of protein production in a cell;9-15;Which of the following statements about gene families is false?;(a);Because gene duplication can occur when crossover events occu
HOW GENES AND GENOMES EVOLVE
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