"A) Why is it important for cells that proteins are degraded instead of remaining;indefinitely after being synthesized? (B) Name two ways cells control protein turn over?;Hints is in the attachment below;Attachment Preview;Lch15.1-4.pdf Download Attachment;CHAPTER 15;Principles of Metabolic Regulation;Key topics;Metabolic Pathways;The biochemical reactions in the living cell the;metabolism is organized into metabolic pathways;The pathways have dedicated purposes;Principles of regulation in biological systems;Glycolysis vs. gluconeogenesis?;Chemistry and regulation of glycogen metabolism;Metabolic Pathways;The pathways can be represented as a map;Map of Metabolic Pathways;The biochemical reactions in the living cell the metabolism is;organized into metabolic pathways;The pathways have dedicated purposes, some are dedicated;to extraction of energy;to storage of fuels;for synthesis of important building blocks;to elimination of waste materials;The pathways can be represented as a map;Follow the fate of metabolites and building blocks;Identify enzymes that act on these metabolites;Identify points and agents of regulation;Identify sources of metabolic diseases;http://www.genome.jp/kegg/;Homeostasis;Organisms maintain homeostasis by keeping the;concentrations of most metabolites at steady;state;Principles of Regulation;The flow of metabolites through the pathways is regulated;to maintain homeostasis;Sometimes, the levels of required metabolites must be;altered very rapidly;increase the capacity of glycolysis during the action;reduce the capacity of glycolysis after the action;increases the capacity of gluconeogenesis after successful action;Homeostasis;Organisms maintain homeostasis by keeping the;concentrations of most metabolites at steady;state;In steady state, the rate of synthesis of a;metabolite equals the rate of breakdown of this;metabolite;Regulate fluxes to maintain concentration of;metabolite (control enzyme);Feedback Inhibition;In many cases, ultimate products of metabolic pathways directly;or indirectly inhibit their own biosynthetic pathways;ATP inhibits the commitment step of glycolysis;Feedback Inhibition;Flux Control Coefficient for AD;Intermediate (branch point) or;cofactor (NADPH) can integrate;pathways by controlling enzyme;early in pathway;negative coefficient because;branchpoint competes for B;relative contribution of each enzymes in a pathway to flux J;through pathway, C=0, no impact on J, C=1 total control on;pathway;Note the Sum = 1 for any system of enzymes analyzed as a group;Reactions Far From Equilibrium Common Points of;Regulation;Living systems thrive by keeping some metabolic reactions far;from equilibrium while the levels of metabolites are in steady state;Rates of a Biochemical Reactions;Rates of a biochemical reactions depend on;many factors;Concentration of reactants (segregation, transporters);Activity of the catalyst;Concentration of the enzyme;(protein stability, rate of transcription/translation, mRNA/;protein degradation);Intrinsic activity of the enzyme;(covalent modification, binding of regulatory proteins;expression of isozymes (isoforms) w/ different kinetics and;regulation);Rates of a Biochemical Reactions;Factors that Determine the Activity of Enzymes;Rates of a biochemical reactions depend on;many factors;Michaelis Menten kinetics;Rate is Vmax when;[S]=Km;Enzyme is saturated w/;reactant associate;Concentration of reactants;Activity of the catalyst;Concentration of the enzyme;Intrinsic activity of the enzyme;Concentrations of effectors;hyperbolic response to;concentration;Allosteric regulators;Competing substrates;pH, ionic environment;Sensitive to small changes;in [substrate];Temperature;Km;These experimental data yield a Km for ATP of 5 mM.;The concentration of ATP in animal tissues is
Principles of Metabolic Regulation
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